Regresy podobieństwa. Podwójny relacyjny argument przeciwko nominalizmowi tropowemu

  • Paweł Rojek Instytut Filozofii, Uniwersytet Jagielloński
Słowa kluczowe: resemblance, regress, universals, tropes, external relations, internal relations


Trope nominalists claim that resemblance is a primitive relation. There are two well-known arguments that aim to prove that such resemblance leads to a vicious regress. On the one hand, Bertrand Russell famously argued that resemblance relations imply an infinite series of resemblances holding between them. On the other hand, less famously, Edmund Husserl claimed that resemblance must be grounded in identity, for otherwise it falls into a vicious regress. In this paper, I argue that these arguments are intimately connected and, in fact, form a single complex case against nominalism. The point is that the standard solution to the Russell regress, which takes resemblance to be an internal relation, leads to the Husserl regress, and vice versa: a solution to the Husserl regress is possible when resemblance is taken to be an external relation, which immediately leads to the Russell regress.


Armstrong D. M. (1978a), Universals and Scientific Realism, t. 1: Nominalism and Realism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Armstrong D. M. (1978b), Universals and Scientific Realism, t. 2: Theory of Universals, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Armstrong D. M. (1989), Universals. An Opinionated Introduction, Boulder: Westerview Press.
Armstrong D. M. (2005), Four Disputes about Properties, "Synthese" 144(3), 309-320.
Arystoteles (2000), Metafizyka, tłum. T. Żeleźnik i in., Lublin: Redakcja Wydawnictw KUL.
Bambrough R. (1976), Universals and Family Resemblances [w:] Universals and Particulars. Readings in Ontology, M. J. Loux (ed.), Notre Dame–London: University of Notre Dame Press, 106-124.
Bergmann G. (1967), Realism, Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.
Bocheński J. M. (1993), Zagadnienie powszechników, tłum. T. Baszniak [w:] Logika i filozofia. Wybór pism, Warszawa: PWN, 79-105.
Boecjusz (2009), Drugi komentarz do Isagogi, tłum. T. Tiuryn [w:] T. Tiuryn, Boecjusz i problem uniwersaliów, Wrocław: FNP, 401-408.
Brownstein D. (1973), Aspects of the Problem of Universals, Lawrence: University of Kansas.
Campbell K. (1990), Abstract Particulars, Cambridge: Blackwell.
Chrudzimski A. (2002), Two Concepts of Trope, "Grazer Philosophische Studien" 64, 137-155.
Chrudzimski A. (2005), Internal, External, and Intra-Individual Relations, "Axiomathes" 15(4), 487-512.
Daly C. (1997), Tropes [w:] Properties, D. H. Mellor, A. Oliver (eds.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 140-159.
Dawes Hicks G. (1923), Are the Characteristics of Particular Things Universal or Particular, "Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society. Supplementary Volumes" 3, 123-128.
Ehring D. (2011), Tropes. Properties, Objects, and Mental Causation, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Florenski P. (2009), Sens idealizmu. Metafizyka rodzaju i oblicza, tłum. P. Rojek [w:] Sens idealizmu. Metafizyka rodzaju i oblicza oraz inne pisma, T. Obolevitch, P. Rojek (wybór i oprac.), Warszawa: Wydawnictwo IFiS PAN.
Grossmann R. (1994), The Existence of the World. An Introduction to Ontology, London— New York: Routledge.
Hochberg H. (1988), A Refutation of Moderate Nominalism, "Australasian Journal of Philosophy" 2(66), 188-207.
Hochberg H. (2004), Relations, Properties, and Particulars [w:] Relations and Predicates, H. Hochberg, K. Mulligan (eds.), Frankfurt: Ontos, 17-54.
Hume D. (2005), Traktat o naturze ludzkiej, tłum. Cz. Znamierowski, Warszawa: Aletheia.
Husserl E. (2000), Badania logiczne, t. 2: Badania dotyczące fenomenologii i teorii poznania, część I, tłum. J. Sidorek, Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
Johansson I. (1989), Ontological Investigations, London: Routledge.
Kim J. (2002), Umysł w świecie fizycznym. Esej na temat problemu umysłu i ciała oraz przyczynowania mentalnego, tłum. R. Poczobut, Warszawa: Wydawnictwo IFiS PAN.
Küng G. (1967), Ontology and the Logistic Analysis of Language. An Enquiry into the Contemporary Views on Universals, Dordrecht: D. Reidel.
Lloyd A. C. (1951), On Arguments for Real Universals, "Analysis" 11(5), 102-107.
Loux M. J. (1978), Substance and Attribute. A Study In Ontology, Dordrecht: D. Reidel. Marmodoro A., Yates D. (2016), Introduction. The Metaphysics of Relations [w:] The
Metaphysics of Relations, A. Marmodoro, D. Yates (eds.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1-18.
Martin C. B. (1980), Substance Substantiated, "Australasian Journal of Philosophy" 58(1), 3-10.
Martin C. B., Heil J. (2008), Zwrot ontologiczny, tłum. M. Bucholc, T. Ciecierski [w:] Analityczna metafizyka umysłu. Najnowsze kontrowersje, M. Miłkowski, R. Poczobut (red.), Warszawa: Wydawnictwo IFiS PAN, 262-298.
Maurin A.-S. (2002), If Tropes, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Maurin A.-S. (2005), Same but Different, "Metaphysica" 6(1), 129-146.
Maurin A.-S. (2007), Infinite Regress: Virtue or Vice? [w:] Hommage à Wlodek, T. Rønnow-Rasmussen, B. Petersson, J. Josefsson, D. Egonsson (eds.),
Maurin A.-S. (2010), Trope Theory and the Bradley Regress, "Synthese" 175(3), 311-326.
Mertz D. W. (1996), Moderate Realism and Its Logic, New Haven: Yale University Press.
Moore G. E. (1922), External and Internal Relations [w:] Philosophical Studies, New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 276-309.
Moreland J. P. (1989a), Keith Campbell and the Trope View of Predication, "Australasian Journal of Philosophy" 4(67), 379-393.
Moreland J. P. (1989b), Was Husserl a Nominalist?, "Philosophy and Phenomenological Research" 49(4), 661-674.
Moreland J. P. (2001), Universals, Chesham: Acumen.
Ockham W. (1971), Suma logiczna, tłum. T. Włodarczyk, Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.
Platon (2002), Parmenides, Teajtet, tłum. W. Witwicki, Kęty: Antyk.
Poczobut R. (2000), Superweniencja. Zarys problematyki, "Filozofia Nauki" 8(2) [30], 25-44.
Price H. H. (1953), Thinking and Experience, London: Hutchinson.
Rodriguez-Pereyra G. (2002), Resemblance Nominalism. A Solution to the Problem of Universals, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Rojek P. (2008), Three Trope Theories, "Axiomathes" 18(3), 359-377.
Russell B. (1906-1907), On the Nature of Truth, "Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society" 7, 28-49.
Russell B. (1910), The Monistic Theory of Truth [w:] Philosophical Essays, London: Longmans, Green and Co., 150-169.
Russell B. (1911-1912), On the Relations between Universals and Particulars, "Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society" 12, 1-24.
Russell B. (1995), Problemy filozofii, tłum. W. Sady, Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
Russell B. (2011), Badania dotyczące znaczenia i prawdy, tłum. J. Wawrzyniak, Kraków: WAM.
Seargent D. A. J. (1985), Plurality and Continuity. An Essay in G. F. Stout's Theory of Universals, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Searle J. R. (1959), On Determinables and Resemblance, "Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society. Supplementary Volumes" 33, 141-158.
Segelberg I. (1999), Properties, tłum. H. Hochberg, S. Ringström [w:] Three Essays in Phenomenology and Ontology, Stockholm: Thales, 133-233.
Simons P. (1994), Particulars in Particular Clothings. Three Trope Theories, "Philosophical and Phenomenological Research" 54(3), 553-575.
Szymura J. (1990), Relacje w perspektywie absolutnego monizmu F. H. Bradleya, Kraków: Wydawnictwo UJ.
Szymura J. (2011), Nominalizm [w:] Przewodnik po metafizyce, S. T. Kołodziejczyk (red.), Kraków: WAM, 161-210.
Trogdon K. (2013), An Introduction to Grounding [w:] Varieties of Dependence. Ontological Dependence, Grounding, Supervenience, Response-Dependence, M. Hoeltje, B. Schnieder, A. Steinberg (eds.), Munchen: Philosophia Verlag, 97-122.
Vallicella W. F. (2002), Relations, Monism, and the Vindication of Bradley's Regress, "Dialectica" 56(1), 3-35.
Williams D. C. (1953), On the Elements of Being, "Review of Metaphysics" 7, 3-18, 171-192.
Williams D. C. (1963), Necessary Facts, "The Review of Metaphysics" 16(4), 601-626.
© University of Warsaw. All rights reserved.
Jak cytować
Rojek, P. (2018). Regresy podobieństwa. Podwójny relacyjny argument przeciwko nominalizmowi tropowemu. Filozofia Nauki, 26(2), 13-41.