Filozofia Nauki <p>„Filozofia Nauki” (ang. "The Philosophy of Science") jest kwartalnikiem naukowym wydawanym przez Wydział Filozofii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego. Zamieszcza recenzowane artykuły, polemiki i recenzje obejmujące cały zakres filozofii analitycznej, w tym epistemologię, ontologię, filozofię nauki, filozofię języka, filozofię umysłu, logikę filozoficzną, semiotykę logiczną, prakseologię i kognitywistykę.</p> Faculty of Philosophy, University of Warsaw, Poland pl-PL Filozofia Nauki 1230-6894 Formalne związki między powinnością a dobrem. Rozważania na marginesie prac Henryka Elzenberga <p>The paper presents a relative preference semantics for multimodal logic of good and ought inspired by the axiological writings of Henryk Elzenberg. Its central concept is the act of preference between alternative possibilities performed by a metaempirical will, guided only by pure reasons. In semantics, the act of a metaempirical will is modeled using an orderly relation between possible worlds. Using this logic, I formalize some relationships between good and ought posited by Elzenberg.</p> Marcin Drofiszyn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 28 4 5 23 10.14394/filnau.2020.0019 Jeszcze trochę hałasu o nic. Pewna logiczna analiza nicości <p>Nothingness is a perennial subject of philosophical inquiry. From the logical point of view, the problem is that “nothing” is an ambiguous word: it can be used either as a negated existential quantifier or as a singular term. If it is used as a singular term, then it refers to nothing at all. In this paper, a number of recent formal treatments of nothingness are critically discussed. The author proposes some new logical approaches to nothingness, involving notions of generalized quantifiers, Meinongian objects, and aspectual objects.</p> Jacek Paśniczek ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 28 4 25 38 10.14394/filnau.2020.0020 Kazimierza Ajdukiewicza analiza syntaktyczna a problem wyrażeń niepełnych <p>This paper discusses the problem of applying Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz’s method of syntactic analysis to incomplete expressions that occur in natural languages. The author defends the claim that it is impossible effectively to apply syntactic analysis to any expressions of natural languages, due to the presence of incomplete expressions. First, the author outlines the basic concepts and describes Ajdukiewicz’s selected views on incomplete expressions, as well as his method of syntactic analysis. Second, using the example of various types of incomplete expressions, the author presents problems that arise when syntactic analysis is applied to expressions of natural languages.</p> Patryk Popławski ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 28 4 39 60 10.14394/filnau.2020.0021 O historycznym związku mechaniki Arystotelesa i mechaniki Newtona <p>Recently, it has been claimed that Aristotle’s mechanics is a special case of Newton’s mechanics, adequate for speeds tending to zero (Grygiel 2020). I show in the article that this claim does not stand up to closer scrutiny. But there is a peculiar historical relationship between the two theories. Attempts to reconcile the tenets of Aristotelian mechanics with the results of everyday observations by Greek, Arabic, and Latin commentators led to the addition of the theory of impetus to this mechanics. The theory of impetus, in conjunction with the basic principles of Aristotle’s physics, led to conclusions that shattered the system’s coherence. In the seventeenth century, some of these conclusions were elevated to the rank of independent principles, and after being separated from their sources, they gave rise to the research program of Newtonian mechanics.</p> Wojciech Sady ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 28 4 61 82 10.14394/filnau.2020.0022 Jaka teoria działania? O "Mechanice działań" Michała Barcza <p>This is a review of Michał Barcz’s book <em>Mechanika działań. Filozoficzny spór wokół przyczynowej teorii działania</em> (<em>Mechanics of Actions: Philosophical Dispute over the Causal Theory of </em><em>Action</em>). The book discusses various causal accounts of intentional action and presents several arguments against them. The review focuses on accuracy in presentation of different causal theories of action and soundness of arguments presented against them by the author. At the end, I discuss some methodological issues raised by the book.</p> Maciej Tarnowski ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 28 4 83 102 10.14394/filnau.2020.0023