Filozofia Nauki https://www.fn.uw.edu.pl/index.php/fn <p>„Filozofia Nauki” (ang. "The Philosophy of Science") jest kwartalnikiem naukowym wydawanym przez Wydział Filozofii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego. Zamieszcza recenzowane artykuły, polemiki i recenzje obejmujące cały zakres filozofii analitycznej, w tym epistemologię, ontologię, filozofię nauki, filozofię języka, filozofię umysłu, logikę filozoficzną, semiotykę logiczną, prakseologię i kognitywistykę.</p> Faculty of Philosophy, University of Warsaw, Poland pl-PL Filozofia Nauki 1230-6894 The Lvov-Warsaw School in the World of Values: Introduction to the Special Issues of Filozofia Nauki https://www.fn.uw.edu.pl/index.php/fn/article/view/1259 Anna Brożek Witold Płotka ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 30 1 5 22 10.14394/filnau.2022.0001 Kotarbiński on Intellectual Values and Intellectual Ethics https://www.fn.uw.edu.pl/index.php/fn/article/view/1260 <p>Tadeusz Kotarbiński never formulates explicitly the project of an intellectual ethics, but we can reconstruct his answer from his Traktat o dobrej robocie (1955; Eng. transl.: Praxiology: An introduction to the Sciences of Efficient Action, 1965) and his ethical writings. Kotarbiński does not formulate an explicit meta-ethics of values, and seems to develop a purely functionalist conception according to which there is nothing more in intellectual ethics than a conception of efficient action. However, he has a theory of practical values and skills that can be applied to the aims and norms of the epistemic domain. But can he secure a genuine conception of intellectual values if these are merely immanent to “efficient work”?</p> Pascal Engel ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 30 1 23 38 10.14394/filnau.2022.0002 Anti-irrationalism, Its Value and Philosophical Implications https://www.fn.uw.edu.pl/index.php/fn/article/view/1261 <p>The article examines the concept of anti-irrationalism coined by the members of the Lvov-Warsaw School. The term “anti-irrationalism” comes from Ajdukiewicz, who used it to define the specificity of the School as a whole. For Ajdukiewicz, anti-irrationalism, which values cognition with intersubjective qualities, is contrasted with irrationalism. The article discusses Twardowski’s tripartite division of beliefs into rational, “irrational,” and “non-rational.” Against this background, the article explores Dąmbska’s view on irrationalism, which is divided by her into several subcategories.<br>Finally, the author considers the question of anti-irrationalism as a metaphilosophical standpoint in the context of the question of a worldview.</p> Ryszard Kleszcz ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 30 1 39 46 10.14394/filnau.2022.0003 Leading Metaphilosophical Values of the Lvov-Warsaw School https://www.fn.uw.edu.pl/index.php/fn/article/view/1262 <p>The article explores the concept of scientific philosophy as understood by members of the Lvov-Warsaw School. The author argues that according to Twardowski and his students, philosophy should be done as an exact discipline which ought to be pursued in critical and collaborative spirit. Selected views on scientific philosophy are analyzed, including ideas of Ajdukiewicz, Zawirski, and Dąmbska. It is claimed that though the conception of scientific philosophy is beset with crucial and fundamental ambiguities, it was far more important for the Lvov-Warsaw School than the idea of analytic philosophy.</p> Tadeusz Szubka ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 30 1 47 52 10.14394/filnau.2022.0004 On Certain Values of the Lvov-Warsaw School and Logical Culture: Towards Challenges of Contemporaneousness https://www.fn.uw.edu.pl/index.php/fn/article/view/1263 <p>This article explores the question of how the members of the Lvov-Warsaw School promoted values that can be regarded as components of so-called logical culture. The author argues that these values are strictly connected with science. With references to Łukasiewicz, Czeżowski, and Kotarbiński,<br>the article explores how values shape the logical culture and determines society as directed towards values. The article connects the meta-philosophical perspective with the philosophical one.</p> Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 30 1 53 66 10.14394/filnau.2022.0005 Polish Logicians in the Years 1918-1948 on Social Functions of Logic https://www.fn.uw.edu.pl/index.php/fn/article/view/1264 <p>The Polish School of Logic flourished in the period 1920-1939. Philosophically, it was influenced by Kazimierz Twardowski, professor at the University of Lwow (now Lviv in Ukraine), who established the Lwow-Warsaw School, to which the mentioned logical group belonged. Twardowski claimed that logic is very important in every kind of human activity, professional as well as private. Hence, every argument should be clearly formulated and proceed by correct inferential rules. These postulates involved semiotics, formal logic, and methodology of science — that is, logica sensu largo. This position was accepted by Twardowski’s most distinguished students, such as Jan Łukasiewicz, Stanisław Leśniewski, Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz, and Tadeusz Kotarbiński, who graduated before 1914, as well as the next generation of logicians and philosophers, particularly by Alfred Tarski. Although all these people considered logic, philosophy, and science as completely neutral with respect to politics and ideology, they treated logical skills as indispensable in political activities. In philosophical specialized terminology, Polish logicians regarded logic as a weapon against irrationalism. This position was also represented by Polish logicians who did not belong to the group of Twardowski’s students.</p> Jan Woleński ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 30 1 67 81 10.14394/filnau.2022.0006 The Value of Reality to Logic and the Value of Logic to Reality: A Comparison of Łukasiewicz’s and Leśniewski’s Views https://www.fn.uw.edu.pl/index.php/fn/article/view/1265 <p>Since Kazimierz Twardowski introduced the notions of “symbolomania” and “pragmatophobia,” the relationship between logic and reality was the focus of the philosophers from the Lvov-Warsaw School — inter alia two prominent logicians of the group, Stanisław Leśniewski and Jan Łukasiewicz. Bolesław Sobociński has pointed out, however, that there was a contrast between their approach to logic and reality. Despite being members of the same philosophical group and even colleagues from the same department, their philosophical views on the position of logic in reality differed considerably. Yet they both agreed that reality has a certain importance for logic and that logic could be valuable for reality. The aim of this paper is to introduce their divergent positions and describe in more detail how Leśniewski and Łukasiewicz understood the relationship between logic and the real world.</p> Zuzana Rybaříková ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 30 1 83 94 10.14394/filnau.2022.0007 On Good Mental Work: Techniques of Mental Work as a Subject of Pragmatic Logic in the Lvov-Warsaw School https://www.fn.uw.edu.pl/index.php/fn/article/view/1266 <p>Kazimierz Twardowski was renowned as an outstanding philosopher, teacher, and organizer of academic life. No less famous was his style of work, depicted in many recollections of his students. In the paper, I present three aspects of good mental work: a) stoic inspiration for Kazimierz Twardowski’s style of work, b) the place of the techniques of mental work in the program of pragmatic logic according to the views of Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz and Tadeusz Kotarbiński, and c) selected contemporary approaches consistent with the direction provided by the Lvov-Warsaw School. By exploring a new perspective in the study of good mental work by linking it to the ancient philosophy of life as well as to the most recent developments in the theory of good mental work, the paper reveals unexplored insights into the tradition of the Lvov-Warsaw School, demonstrating its significance, depth, and relevance to modern times.</p> Marcin Będkowski ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 30 1 95 113 10.14394/filnau.2022.0008 Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz, “On Justice”: Introduction https://www.fn.uw.edu.pl/index.php/fn/article/view/1267 Anna Brożek ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 30 1 115 117 10.14394/filnau.2022.0009 On Justice https://www.fn.uw.edu.pl/index.php/fn/article/view/1268 Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 30 1 119 130 10.14394/filnau.2022.0010 Two Papers by Maria Ossowska: Introduction https://www.fn.uw.edu.pl/index.php/fn/article/view/1269 Anna Brożek ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 30 1 131 133 10.14394/filnau.2022.0011 The Model of a Citizen in a Democratic System https://www.fn.uw.edu.pl/index.php/fn/article/view/1270 Maria Ossowska ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 30 1 135 147 10.14394/filnau.2022.0012 On the Concept of Dignity https://www.fn.uw.edu.pl/index.php/fn/article/view/1271 Maria Ossowska ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 30 1 149 158 10.14394/filnau.2022.0013